Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder affecting red blood cells. Normal red blood cells contain hemoglobin A. People with sickle celldisease have red blood cells containing mostly hemoglobin S, an abnormal type of hemoglobin. The abnormal "S" hemoglobin causes red blood cells to become sickle-shaped (crescent-shaped), and have difficulty passing through small blood vessels. There are several different types of sickle cell disease; the most common types are sickle cell disease(SS disease), sickle hemoglobin C (SC Disease), and sickle-cell beta thalassemia (Sß+ or Sß0 disease). (READ MORE BELOW)




How common is sickle cell disease?

Sickle cell disease is one of the most common diseases in the world, with approximately 300,000 babies being born each year with some form of the disease. Overall, it is estimated that approximately 100,000 persons in the U.S.are living with sickle cell disease.


Sickle cell disease is the most common disease detected by newborn screening efforts in the United States, as between 1 out of every 2500 and 1 out of every 2000 babies born in the U.S. has some form of the disease.

Who gets sickle cell disease?

Sickle cell disease can affect persons of any racial or ethnic background. In the U.S., African-Americans are most likely to have the disease, though it is found among many different racial and ethnic groups, including whites, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Southeast Asians.

What are the symptoms of sickle cell disease?

Sickle cell disease causes a number of health complications for the affected individual. Persons with sickle cell disease are more susceptible to:

  • Infections and strokes.

  • Progressive organ damage throughout the body, including the lungs,      kidneys, and joints.

  • Some may develop neurocognitive deficits.

  • Moderate to severe acute pain, called vaso-occlusive crises (or sickle cell crises).


Pain episodes ("crisis") 

These episodes can affect any part of the body and can be as short as a few hours in length, or they may last for days on end. In addition to this severe, acute pain, the disease is the source of chronic pain as well (in the hips, back, or other joints, for example).


Sickle cell disease can cause early mortality, and even though people with the disease are living longer, it is estimated that persons with the most severe form of the disease (sickle cell anemia) have a median life expectancy approaching 50 years.

How can I prevent some of the complications of sickle cell disease?

With the necessary support, people with sickle cell disease should be able to lead normal lives.

Preventing Infections

  • People with sickle cell anemia need to keep their immunizations up to date, including Haemophilus influenza, pneumococcal, meningococcal, hepatitis B, and influenza.

  • Some patients may receive antibiotics to prevent infections.

Preventing Crises

There is no way to always prevent sickling and sickle cell crises. Here are some gneeral ideas that may help:

  • Get enough oxygen

  • Drink plenty of fluids

  • Avoid getting over-heated or getting very cold

  • Avoid getting infections, and quickly treat infections when you do get them

  • See a primary care doctor


More specific recommendations to reduce the number of sickle cell crises an affected person may experience include taking the following precautions:

  • To prevent oxygen loss, avoid:

    • Demanding physical activity (especially if the spleen is enlarged)

    • Emotional stress (or learn how to better cope with it)

    • Environments with low oxygen (high altitudes, nonpressurized airplane flights)

    • Smoking

    • Known sources of infection

  • To make sure you're getting enough fluids:

    • Avoid too much exposure to the sun

    • Have fluids on hand, both at home and away

    • Recognize signs of dehydration

  • To avoid infection:

    • You or your child should be vaccinated as recommended by the health care provider

    • Share the above information with teachers and other caretakers when necessary

    • Seek emergency medical attention for any temperature of 101.50 F or higher

    • Practice good hand hygiene, especially washing hands frequently when coughing or sneezing or caring for others who have colds.

Where can I find additional resources and information about sickle cell disease?


The Sickle Cell Association of America advocates for the needs of persons with sickle cell disease. They have member organizations all across the U.S. Please see their website for more information: http://www.sicklecelldisease.org


The Sickle Cell Information Center based in Atlanta, Georgia provides a wealth of news, information, and links to resources about sickle cell disease. Please see their website at: http://www.scinfo.org

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health is one of the federal organizations that oversees research related to sickle cell disease. See their website for news, education, and other information about the disease: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/new/sicklecell.htm

What about Sickle Cell Trait (SCT)?

People with SCD are born with two sickle cell genes, but people with SCT are born with one normal gene and one sickle cell gene. The great majority of people with SCT will not experience pain crises or other symptoms of SCD. However, in very extreme conditions, such as in high altitudes or when dehydrated, people with SCT can experience shortness of breath, pain crises, and other health problems related to SCD. In very few cases, SCT and SCD have been linked to a rare kidney cancer known as renal medullary carcinoma (RMC)External. Most reported cases of RMC have occurred in people with SCT, but very rarely, cases of RMC have also been reported in people with SCD. If you do not know or are unsure about your trait status, it is important to get screened for sickle cell disease. Ask your primary care provider for an electropheresis blood test to learn your status.


Why would I want a primary care physician? How common is sickle cell disease?
Who gets sickle cell disease?
What are the symptoms of sickle cell disease?
How do people get sickle cell disease?
Important facts about sickle cell disease
How can I prevent complications of sickle cell disease?
Where can I find additional resources about sickle cell disease?

Special thanks to John Hopkins Medicine for providing the educational content above.